Arikara Sound Key

Type Arikara Approximate Equivalent
Short Vowels: a ago
e bed
i police, pit
o wrote
u flute
Long Vowels: aa spa
ee neighbor
ii machine
oo go
uu rude
Consonants: č which
h hit
n no
s sit
š ship
w will
k skill
p spill
t still
r Spanish pero
x German ich, acht
ʾ oh-oh
Others: i (Not pronounced)
u (Not pronounced)
æ bat
ą French ans
ų French un
´ (Primary stress)
Capital letters (Whispered sounds)


1 OBJ First person pronominal object
1 POSS First person nominal possessor
1 SUBJ First person subject pronominal
2 OBJ Second person pronominal object
2 POSS Second person nominal possessor
2 SUBJ Second person subject pronominal
3 POSS Third person nominal possessor
ADV Adverbial
AOR Aorist
BENE Benefactive
CAUS Causative
COMIT Comitative
DEMON Demonstrative
DIST Distributive
DU Dual number
DUB Dubitative
EVID Evidential
EXCL Exclamative
EXIS Existential
HAB Habitual aspect
HORT Hortative
IMPF Imperfective aspect
IN DU OBJ Inclusive dual pronominal object
IN DU SUBJ Inclusive dual pronominal subject
IN PL SUBJ Inclusive plural pronominal subject
INC Inchoative aspect
INDEF Indefinite
INFR Inferential
INT Intentive
INTENS Intensifier
INTERROG Interrogative pronoun
JUSS Jussive
LOC Locative
MOD ABS Absolutive and gerundial modes
MOD ASS Assertive mode
MOD CON Conditional and contingent modes
MOD IMP Imperative mode
MOD IND Indicative mode
MOD INF Infinitive mode
MOD NEG Negative indicative mode
MOD POT Potential mode
MOD SUB Subjunctive mode
N ABS Nominal absolutive
N FEM Nominal feminine
N INST Nominal instrumental
N LOC Nominal locative
NON SUB Non subordinate form
OBJ Object
ONOMAT Onomatopoeic
PERF Perfective aspect
PL Plural
POSS Subject or object possessor
PREV Preverb
QUOT Quotative
REFL Reflexive/reciprocal
SING Singular number
SREF Switch reference; indefinite subject
SUB Subordinate form
SUBJ Subject